前出师表中英文对照

发布时间:2019-03-10 18:45:02

前出师表(中英文对照)

The First Memorial of Troops in a Campaign

作者:诸葛亮

译者:卢胜建,修订于2014/2/28

臣亮言:

Your Majesty! I, Zhuge Liang, have to say:

先帝创业未半而中道崩殂(cú),今天下三分,益州疲(pí)弊,此诚危急存亡之秋也。然侍卫之臣不懈(xiè)于内,忠志之士忘身于外者,盖追先帝之殊遇,欲报之于陛下也。诚宜开张圣听,以光先帝遗(yí)德,恢弘志士之气,不宜妄自菲薄,引喻失义(适合恰当),以塞(sè)忠谏之路也。[2]

The Late Emperor started the great task of reunifying, but he passed away on the way when a half of his task hadn't been finished yet. Now as the China is divided into three kingdoms and the financial resources of the people of Yizhou Province are lacking, this is indeed a time of national crisis. However, the officials at Court don't slack off and the soldiers are daring regardless of personal danger on the battlefield, presumably because they remember the Late Emperor for the special feel appreciated and want to repay for his kindness by serving Your Majesty loyally. Your Majesty really should hear a wide range of opinions, carry forward the virtues of the Late Emperor, inspire people who have lofty ambitions, and shouldn’t just undervalue yourself or say some improper words that would lead to stop up loyal criticisms.

宫中府中,俱为一体,陟(zhì )罚臧(zāng)否(pǐ),不宜异同。若有作奸犯科及为忠善者,宜付有司论其刑赏,以昭陛下平明之理,不宜偏私,使内外异法也。

Inside the palace and court, the ministers are a whole. Therefore, reward and punishment shouldn’t be different for merits and demerits. If someone commits crimes in violation of the law or loyally does good deeds, he should be handed over to the competent officer to determine the punishment or reward. This will show strict and impartial governance of Your Majesty. Your Majesty shouldn’t have favoritism and selfishness that will result in different ways for carrying out reward and punishment inside the palace and court.

侍中、侍郎郭攸(yōu)之、费祎(yī)、董允等,此皆良实,志虑忠纯,是以先帝简拔以遗(wèi)陛下。愚以为宫中之事,事无大小,悉以咨之,然后施行,必能裨(bì)补阙漏,有所广益。

Imperial advisors and assistant ministers like Guo Youzhi, Fei Yi, Dong Yun and others are honest and good people, their aspirations and thoughts are loyal and for this reason the Late Emperor chose them to assist Your Majesty. In my humble opinion, Your Majesty should discuss all big or small state affairs with them before implementing, because this will help to overcome shortcomings or omissions and can obtain many benefits.

将军向宠,性行淑均,晓畅军事,试用于昔日,先帝称之曰能,是以众议举宠为督。愚以为营中之事,悉以咨之,必能使行阵和睦,优劣得所。

General Xiang Chong, whose character is good and conduct is fair, is proficient in the military affairs. In former days, the Late Emperor praised him as a talented person after his probation, so everyone appraised and recommended him to be the Prefect of the Royal Guards. In my humble opinion, all military affairs should be discussed with him, if so, the army should be certainly harmonious, and advantages and disadvantages should be properly placed.

亲贤臣,远小人,此先汉所以兴隆也;亲小人,远贤臣,此后汉所以倾颓也。先帝在时,每与臣论此事,未尝不叹息痛恨于桓(huán)、灵也。侍中、尚书、长(zhǎng)史、参军,此悉贞良死节之臣,愿陛下亲之信之,则汉室之隆,可计日而待也。

The Western Han Dynasty was booming because the emperors got close to upright ministers and alienated villains; the Eastern Han Dynasty was decaying because the emperors got close to villains and alienated upright ministers. When the Late Emperor was still alive, every time talked about these things with me, he would sigh and hate the failings of Emperors Huan and Ling. The Imperial advisors, Ministers, Assistants of the Ministers and Military Advisers are all loyal and reliable men who are willing to die for serving the country. I hope Your Majesty will be close to them and will trust them, then the Han Dynasty will be flourishing soon.

臣本布衣,躬耕于南阳,苟全性命于乱世,不求闻(wén)达于诸侯。先帝不以臣卑(bēi)鄙(bǐ),猥(wěi委屈)自枉屈,三顾臣于草庐之中,咨臣以当世之事,由是感激,遂许先帝以驱驰。后值倾覆,受任于败军之际,奉命于危难之间,尔来二十有(yòu)一年矣!

I was of the common people, farming in Nanyang, barely surviving in the troubled times and not seeking fame among the feudal princes. The Late Emperor had visited my thatched cottage thrice in succession, reducing his own identity, not because I was humbled and short-sighted, and asking my opinion of the current situation, so I am very touched and promised the Late Emperor I would try my best to assist. We encountered defeat later. I was appointed when we were defeated and I received the mission in the crisis. Since then It has been 21 years.

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